Drought Mitigation and Adaptation

The coastal areas of Balochistan are particularly prone to drought conditions. Awaran Dist. is situated just above the coastal belt. The topography of the area is stark, with a rocky terrain that is prone to flash floods. The geography of the area prevents water from collecting and any precipitation results in water running straight through the area, onward and into the sea, providing little economic benefit to local communities.Under the circumstances, the efficient use of water resources with optimum output is IET’s main objective. IET approaches the problem of drought and water shortage with need based interventions keeping the local topography and geography in mind.

Micro Irrigation System

IET encourages the use of Micro Irrigation system as one solution to the current problem. The term “micro-irrigation” describes a family of irrigation systems that provide water through small devices. The micro-irrigation systems provide new techniques about usage of minimum water and get maximum yield. Micro-irrigation devices spray, mist, sprinkle or drip deliver water into the soil surface very near the plant or below the soil surface directly into the plant root zone. Water discharge patterns differ because emission devices are designed for specific applications due to agronomic or horticultural requirements. Micro-irrigation components include pipes, tubes, water emitting devices, flow control equipment, installation tools, fittings and accessories.

Water Course Lining

IET has begun to tackle the problem of water scarcity across the UC Teertage by implementing ‘karez rehabilitation’ to include the construction of cement lining of water irrigation: channels to reduce water seepage. A ‘karez’ is an indigenous source or irrigation, a self-sustaining underground tunnel, originating in the hills, which acts as a subsoil drain, carrying water out the surface. A problem is water loss due to seepage of un-lined channels.

Drip Irrigation

In areas where there are no canal-irrigated system and water channels for agriculture there is acute problem of water shortage while the rain-fed (desert) areas are severely affected by drought. Drip Irrigation is an alternative to the irrigation system in use and is extremely efficient. In this simple system plastic pipes are fixed to a small water container allowing water to drip at the roots of the crop. Another very effective system is the use of ‘pitchers’ which are placed in the ground to allow dampness in the surrounding soil which feed the planted crops.

Flood protection walls

These are built surrounding a village where there is a threat of floods damaging property. Built by the communities, these are 4 meters high and up to 500 meters long. Core structure is compacted earth but finished by stone on all sides.

Check dams

These are constructed along a river-bed allowing overflow to feed the next dam downstream. Each dam has irrigation channels that feed agricultural land. This intervention also prevents destruction of local forests as farmers use timber from nearby trees to curtail the water flow into their respective channels.

Check dam in Balochistan